Thesis book published on Blurb


All by Myself: the Lady Business vending system

All By Myself: The Lady Business Vending System

“All by Myself” is the final poster for my graduate thesis presentation.

Women loathe the invasion of privacy, long waits and bureaucracy that come with conventional health care delivery. Lady Business is a public restroom vending machine that allows a woman to take care of her female health care needs without requiring face-to-face interactions.

She’s the Boss

First I address the challenges women face in obtaining health care, uncovered through interviews and research with 17 women and 6 medical professionals.

Challenge: access

Getting your hands on female health care products can require jumping some hurdles. The Lady Business vending machine puts many self-care tools within women’s reach. Women don’t always have a caring doctor on speed dial, and see making appointments as a burden. Gaps in health insurance coverage also keep women away from clinics and pharmacies for fear of high prices. Women are interested in affordable self-tests and self-treatment so that they can avoid the hassle of dealing with the medical world. Women are also interested in self-care on the go, and asked for mundane products such as underwear and deodorant.

Women say, “Don’t make me go to the doctor” 

“I hate having to go somewhere every month to get birth control. Because that’s what prevents me from doing it.”

“I don’t want to go to the doctor to find out or have to ask ten people, do I have a yeast infection?”

“I don’t want to go to the doctor if I just have a “feeling” something is wrong.”

“I chose antibiotics and urine test strips because I get UTIs sometimes and I don’t want to go to the doctor every time.”

Challenge: time

Using a vending machine simply saves time. Public restrooms at school or work are always open and don’t require a long journey or an appointment. Making phone calls, setting appointments, waiting for exams and prescriptions, driving from place to place are all time-consuming parts of the process that offer the woman little value. Women would rather spend their time getting results and information about their health.

Women say, “I need it right away”

“I want a little shot of water to take the pills, so everything’s in the stall.”

“I’d want to buy emergency contraception and take it right now.

“UTI and yeast infection tests will help me figure out rather than speculate.

“More directions and explaining things better. Simple language. Less medical terms.”

Challenge:  shame 

Women want to take care of themselves without the judgement of others. Stigmas and taboos around female sexuality make many health care transactions so embarrassing, women area them or avoid them all together. Health care providers can’t assist women who don’t come in, and women end up with unplanned pregnancies, untreated infections, or just preventable problems. The vending system is designed to be used without forcing women to face anyone else – no asking, no permission, no shame.

Women say, “Help me hide”

“The bathrooms is private. It’s a good place to pull yourself together and contemplate.”

“I’m to embarrassed to pick up condoms, pregnancy tests or Plan B at a pharmacy”

“Maybe I’m a prude, but I don’t like the sales person knowing my sex life.”

“The self-care kit has to be hideable.”

“I need the packaging to stick in the waistband of my clothes. What if I ran into my boss?”

Why should the vending machine include free products?

Women say, “Free means somebody cares”

“It makes you feel supported to have feminine products available for free”

“Maybe free every once in a while? I always feel such goodwill when they are free on campus.”

“Condoms should be free on campus already, like Free Condom Friday!”

Yes She Can

Vending machine:

Women do not want to be seen buying products, so the vending machine is designed to be used quickly and to keep others from knowing what she buys. The machine is triangle-shaped to fit in the corner of a public restroom, instead of hanging on a flat wall. The woman naturally blocks the narrow front of the vending machine with her body while she’s using it, protecting her transaction from curious eyes. She selects products from a dedicated keypad, instead of pushing buttons close to the products, so it’s less easy to identify what she buys from her gestures. The waist-high dispenser means she can easily slip the product into a pocket or purse without having it be exposed. Swiping a credit card or university ID for payment is less fussy than inserting bills and coins, and allows women to buy higher priced items without worrying about correct change.

Product selection:

Women identified several types of products they’d like to buy from vending machines in public restrooms. Top concerns include treating diagnosing and treating common infections, using contraception, caring for periods, keeping clean and pain relief. Women asked for a mix of medical and convenience items. While most items are available at pharmacies or convenience stores, the process of purchasing them involves a special trip to the store and a face-to-face interaction with a cashier. Women were more interested in products that cater to urgent situations (feeling ill, getting a period, preparing for sex) than long-term use products (pack of birth control pills, antibiotics).

Package design:

Women don’t want to be seen using the products they buy. Lady Business purchases are designed to be used in the restroom stall. Women even admitted they’d rather swallow pills without water while in a stall than go stand at the sink with the package. They don’t want anyone to see the package on the floor, so packages are small enough to be unfolded and used in the lap. Products are adhered to the package with glue so nothing falls out when you open it. Packages designed to be mailed away for lab tests turn inside out to become an overnight envelope.

Self-care kits:

Many health situations women face involve a lot of time wasted spent waiting on others to provide a service. Ironically, the technology used to diagnose and treat many infections is simple enough for a woman to do it herself. In research sessions, women expressed interest in kits to help them deal with urinary tract infections, yeast infections, sex, pregnancy and periods. Believe it or not, women can take urine, saliva, and even blood samples, swallow pills, and apply creams with the best of them.

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Lady Business self-care kits + vending machine

Titles like "Yeast Beast" and "Piss Off" makes ladies smile when they're dealing with annoying health problems.

Just Testing: HPV, HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia test kits for me and you

Piss Off: urinary tract infection test and urinary pain relief

Don't Panic: Emergency Contraception and Pregnancy Test

Yeast Beast: yeast infection test and antifungal cream and pill

Aunt Flow: tampon, pad, pain relief and chocolate

Date Night: condom, personal lubricant, wipes, panties

Self-care kits are designed to be small enough to use in the bathroom stall. The flat interior is perfect for brief instructions like, "eat yogurt. wear skirts. lay around."

The Lady Business vending machine is designed to help women cope with urgent situations - sudden symptoms, unexpected periods, and safe sex.

The box is designed to be flat and easy to hide.

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Lady Business in your restroom

Tucked into a discreet corner of the restrooom, Lady Business is there when you need it.

Buy your products quickly with a credit card or student ID

Boxes are tiny and easy to hide in pocket or waistband.

Hit the stall and take care of your lady business in private.

What's she doing in there? No one will ever know.

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Vending machine interface

The vending machine is designed to be used quickly and protect privacy.

This will be the front face of my vending machine prototype. I have a triangular, wall-mounted design that is meant to hang in a private corner of the bathroom. The machine will display a range of products, from convenience items (panties) to contraception (condoms and Plan B) to  self-diagnostics (couples STI test). Users can pay with a credit card or swipe a university ID. Products are ordered via an alpha-numeric code on the right side, so their choice is less conspicuous to others.


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Lady Business package design



Trying different combinations of type helped me clarify the product package

I tried various combinations of Linotype Didot and Avenir to create the branding for Ladybusiness packaging. I experimented with different names for the couples STI test as well, to see if I could communicate that this is a home test for two. I chose the combination of lower case italic Linotype Didot for “lady business” with lowercase heavy Avenir and small caps Avenir.

Couples STI test encourages two people to test at the same time to support eachother. The kit would include a saliva test for HIV and urine tests for gonorrhea and chlamydia.

Each person chooses blue or pink tests. The package turns inside out to become a prepaid overnight mailer. Couples can call for results using an ID # and hear the results of their test by color, instead of by name.

The color palette is “Waiting for Someone” by PurpleScarf via Colour Lovers.

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Self-service blueprint

Self-service design blueprint for Lady Business

Interesting perspective on my Lady Business project. I realized the bulk of my energy for Lady Business has focused on creating evidence: the machine, selecting appropriate products and designing self-care kits. Because Lady Business is DIY female health care, there’s no onstage contact with any employee, which distinguishes it from many other health services.


Product design and vending machine ideas

What does a woman need to take care of herself after unprotected sex? This kit includes several self-diagnostics tests and condoms for next time.

Inspiration machines: old Modess and Tampax machines haven't changed much in the past few decades. New ideas include wall-mounted and walk-up designs.

Walk up models focus on privacy, speed and convenience. Waist high screens or display cases could help conceal purchasing decisions.

Ladies need to be able to hide products after they buy them, especially if they don't have a purse. Packaging needs to be compact and flat.

Self-care kits for urgent situations like unprotected sex, UTIs and periods. A date night kit could help a woman be ready for safe sex.

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Full-size cardboard prototypes

I’ve been making quick cardboard prototypes from the small-scale versions I made last week. I’m testing them for ease of use and privacy. I tacked two up in the hallway and invited students to walk up and give them a try.

Medicine-cabinet style design

Cabinet-style vending machine, door closed. The machine remains unobtrusive while not in use.

Cabinet-style prototype, door open. Users would create privacy by opening the door and blocking the interface with their body.

Walk up to the machine, door closed.

Open the front panel to view the products on display.

This prototype blocks the view from one side, but not the other.

Side privacy panel design

Another prototype design, with privacy side panels (inspired by a urinal design)

Quickly buy something and slip it into a pocket.

From the side, people walking into the bathroom can't see what she's buying.


A triangular machine fits into a corner to help create a private zone for purchases.

The triangular shape would restrict where the vending machine is placed in the restroom. Ideally, it would be a corner furthest away from the entrance.


Paper prototypes

Ten tiny paper models of vending machine shapes for the bathroom. Built to emphasize privacy and function in tight spaces. Wall-mounted design continues in the tradition of bathroom vending machines we see today. Interface will include grab-and-go literature, card swipe for credit cards or student IDs, and glass front to see products or touch-screen to select and vend.

During research sessions, women stressed the need for privacy when purchasing any female health product. My advisor, Suguru Ishizaki, also suggested mixing in innocuous products, such as candy or perfume, with the health products to help women self-camoflaugue when buying something possibly controversial. Previous machine shapes, such as those designed by IDEO and Frog, use side angles to help protect user privacy during transactions.